By Peter Hofschroer
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Extra info for 1815 The Waterloo Campaign: Wellington, His German Allies and the Battles of Ligny and Quatre Bras
Biased as that science was toward atomistic, reductionistic thinking, it could not help but see sums and machines operating according to linearcausal principles everywhere it looked. If it wished now to do justice to the new discoveries, it would have to expand its methodological and epistemological horizons. By the interwar years, some holistic researchers like Felix Krueger were prepared to echo the Goethean view that the triumph of a holistic perspective would transform science into an enterprise rooted in both reason and intuition, capable of uniting its insights with those of art and religion.
29 Why? Certainly, as Anderton notes, there were practical motivations: science, the argument went, was a methodologically universal form of knowledge that needed to be free to roam where it would, without arbitrary political regulations, tariffs, or other restrictions imposed by the current feudalized system. Another, more subtle kind of reason for the relationship between the two agendas was perhaps ultimately more potent: the order of nature and the order of society have always appeared to provide a kind of mutual justification for each other.
62 The exponential growth of industry stimulated in turn an enormously rapid process of urbanization. 63 For every writer fascinated by the excitement and energy of the new urban lifestyle, there was another who deplored its anonymity and immorality. 65 With anxieties and discontents further stoked by the first of several major economic depressions in 1873, the political and cultural direction of an increasingly disgruntled German-speaking population moved to the right. " And in this environment, one sees the rise of new anti-Semitic imagery in which not only cities and factories but also Jews were represented as perpetrators of materialism and mechanization.
1815 The Waterloo Campaign: Wellington, His German Allies and the Battles of Ligny and Quatre Bras by Peter Hofschroer