By Dr. Lars Håkanson (auth.)

ISBN-10: 3540104801

ISBN-13: 9783540104803

ISBN-10: 3642815634

ISBN-13: 9783642815638

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The I-value may be estimated by the L+-value, equation (17). To obtain comparable R-values for different lakes it is necessary to utilize a constant number of contour lines (n). The rule of thumb is that n should be equal to 5. The lake bottom roughness (R) should not be used as a measure to compare the degree of bottom irregularity of various sub-basins in a lake. If this is required, then the form roughness (Rf ) is a preferable measure. The lake bottom roughness may also be determined directly from the echograms accordingly (Galvenius, 1975): (27) I where R lx' ly = the lake bottom roughness; = the total length of the actual bottom profile along the x-direction and y-direction, respectively (in km); s x' s y = the total straight-line length of the echosounded tracks in the x- and y-directions (in km).

G. Gilbert, 1975 and Sturm, 1975), (Table 12). Fig. 30 illustrates the relationship between the slope (ap)' determined from echo grams, and the physical status of the surficial sediments (0 - 1 em), as this is represented by the water content OWO- l )' within a test area in central Lake Vanern. The position of this test area is such that one would expect uniform sedimentological conditions (accumulation area). The major factor controlling the physical sediment character within this area is the slope.

30 LAKE VANERN o 5 10 , 15 20 t 25 k m Fig. 17. The areal distribution of the effective fetch (L f ) in Lake Vanern Maximum effectjve width (B in km); defined by the straight line on the lake ----------------------e surface,perpendicular to the maximum effective length (Le) , which connects the two most distant points on the shoreline. Thus, Be may not cross land or islands. B = 57 km in Lake Vanern (Fig. 13). c ~ ,; 2 3 4567810 4 20 3040 8 12 16 20 24 Water depth (m) Effective fetch (km) Fig. 18.

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A Manual of Lake Morphometry by Dr. Lars Håkanson (auth.)

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