By Elena Agarossi, Harvey Fergusson II
Drawing on ordinarily unpublished records, A country Collapses revises the normal figuring out of a severe second within the heritage of worldwide battle II: the cave in of the Italian fascist regime and Italy's unconditional give up in September 1943. The ebook argues that, in the course of their mystery negotiations earlier than the overthrow of Mussolini in July 1943, either Italy and Britain negotiated in undesirable religion and with loads of duplicity. The ensuing misunderstandings and misjudgments ended in an suddenly lengthy and brutal crusade of conquest following Italy's hand over.
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Additional info for A Nation Collapses: The Italian Surrender of September 1943
A hardening of the British government's position is clear between the first draft in April and the June version. In no way could the first version be characterized as demanding unconditional surrender. That version in fact granted the "honors of war" (Article 3) to the Italian armed forces, that is, the retention of swords and pistols by officers and of small arms and side arms by soldiers of lower rank, a point later omitted. The first version also mentioned "the demobilization of the excess Italian armed forces" (Article 13) and the order to assemble the warships in ports to be specified later by the United Nations (Article 6, later 7), to which was added subsequently, "Some ships can be used under United Nations command," the implication being that the rest of the fleet would remain under Italian authority.
The unconditional surrender proclamation did not prevent Stalin from continuing to explore a possible separate peace with Germany, even in the spring and summer of 1943. This is perhaps why the Soviet government did not react to the Anglo-American initiative and did not even acknowledge its existence between late January and early May 1943. The term simply was not present either in official statements or in Stalin's letters to Roosevelt or Churchill. " 40 Although he used the expression when he thought it appropriate, Stalin never felt committed to the principle of unconditional surrender and did not hesitate to set it aside whenever the issue at hand was that of getting Axis satellites out of the war.
4. The Failure of Italian Attempts to Reach a Separate Peace The Italian defeats in Africa and Russia in the second half of 1942 reinforced a hard line among the Allies against granting any con- 32 From a Separate Peace to Unconditional Surrender cessions to Italy. On the other hand, these defeats, especially the one at El Alamein, led to a series of timid attempts by the Italians to establish contact with the Allied forces. There is now an extensive literature on the various Italian moves to sound out Allied intentions regarding an eventual separate peace,55 so that it is not necessary to retell the history of the different Italian emissaries.
A Nation Collapses: The Italian Surrender of September 1943 by Elena Agarossi, Harvey Fergusson II