By Bikramjit Basu, Dhirendra S. Katti, Ashok Kumar
Permits readers to take complete good thing about the most recent advances in biomaterials and their applications.
Advanced Biomaterials: basics, Processing, and functions reports the most recent biomaterials discoveries, allowing readers to take complete good thing about the latest findings so as to boost the biomaterials learn and improvement. Reflecting the character of biomaterials learn, the e-book covers a extensive variety of disciplines, together with such rising themes as nanobiomaterials, interface tissue engineering, the newest production concepts, and new polymeric materials.
The ebook, a contributed paintings, incorporates a workforce of popular scientists, engineers, and clinicians from all over the world whose services spans the various disciplines wanted for profitable biomaterials development. All readers will achieve a more robust figuring out of the whole diversity of disciplines and layout methodologies which are used to advance biomaterials with the actual and organic houses wanted for particular medical functions.
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Additional resources for Advanced Biomaterials: Fundamentals, Processing, and Applications
Particular emphasis has been made on carbonate apatites since bone and tooth mineral consists of carbonate apatite. This chapter covers a brief description of the fundamentals of hydroxyapatite (structure and properties of unsubstituted and substituted apatites) and related calcium phosphates; calcium phosphates occurring in biologic systems (normal and pathologic calcifications); and calcium phosphate based biomaterials for medical and dental applications. 1 Structure and Properties of Hydroxyapatite, HA and Calcium-Deficient Apatite, CDA The name “Apatite” (from the Greek word, “apatit”, meaning to deceive) was given to mineral apatites because they were often mistaken for precious gems like topaz, aquamarine, amethyst .
It may be worthwhile to remember the difference between in vitro and in vivo tests. In vitro tests are lab scale simulated experiments, which are rapid and are a must as initial screening tests. From the results of the in vitro tests, one cannot obtain any information of inflammation and immune response of the materials. Also, most of the in vitro experiments use single cell lines, which do not reflect the actual tissue interaction (involving multiple cell types) in vivo. Although the in vitro experiments are inexpensive, such tests do not provide appropriate representation of physiological conditions.
The first synthetic carbonate-substituted apatite with Type A substitution prepared at high temperatures (1000 °C) was first reported by Elliott  and Bonel . Apatite with Type B carbonate substitution prepared at low temperatures (25 °C to 95 °C) was first reported by LeGeros [57,87,126] and was demonstrated to be more similar to the carbonate substitution in biologic apatite [57,59,83]. The type of substitution depends on the method of preparation of the carbonate apatite. Type B substitution (CO3-for-PO4) is obtained when prepared from solution (either by precipitation or hydrolysis method at 25 °C to 95 °C [57,81,87,126], or by hydrothermal reactions at 200 °C and 200 psi [41,57,117,118,121].
Advanced Biomaterials: Fundamentals, Processing, and Applications by Bikramjit Basu, Dhirendra S. Katti, Ashok Kumar