By Peter W. Hawkes

ISBN-10: 0120147599

ISBN-13: 9780120147595

Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics merges long-running serials-Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics and Advances in Optical and Electron Microscopy. The sequence positive factors prolonged articles at the physics of electron units (especially semiconductor devices), particle optics at low and high energies, microlithography, picture technological know-how and electronic picture processing, electromagnetic wave propagation, electron microscopy, and the computing tools utilized in some of these domain names.

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Extra resources for Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics, Vol. 117

Example text

Owing to directional symmetry throughout the model, the existence of two optimal parameter vectors should be expected. 327E[T ]. 86). At Þrst glance, this appears to differ markedly from the two optima; however, 36 EDWARD R. DOUGHERTY AND YIDONG CHEN Figure 14. Numerically computed steady-state distribution for the type-[II, 1] model. 327E[T ], which is close to the optimal value (and, to three decimal places, agrees with the expected Þlter error in the steady state). Because of strongly overlapping uniform signal and noise distributions, there is a large region in the parameter plane for which e[r] is fairly stable.

N N ); pn;i− denotes pn except that its ith component is n i − 1; pn;i+ denotes pn except that its ith component is n i + 1; and pn;i−, j+ denotes pn except that its ith component is n i − 1; and its jth component is n j + 1 (Jackson, 1957, 1963). For k = 2, ri j = 0, and ri0 = 1, Eq. (74) reduces to Eq. (72), except that λ and μ must be functions of the state, λn and μn , respectively. Each node (queue) in the network behaves as if it were an independent M/M/1 system with a Poisson input λi that satisÞes the equation N λi = γi + (75) λ j r ji j=i for i = 1, 2, .

When r1 > b or r2 > d, noise grains will never pass, so states in the region deÞned by these inequalities are also transient. Nontransient states occupy the remaining portion of the Þrst quadrant. A transition diagram corresponding to Figure 7 is shown in Figure 8. There are no diagonal transitions because only one parameter can adapt at each stage. As long as the signal and noise parameters are bounded, the transition diagram is Þnite. Transition probabilities at boundary states must be treated carefully.

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Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics, Vol. 117 by Peter W. Hawkes

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