By Ingalis A.G. (ed.)

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12) the magnetization of a magnetized ferrofluid decreases with increasing temperature. Thus, in a situation as shown in Fig. 15, a temperature gradient applied to a magnetized liquid will give rise to a magnetization gradient antiparallel to the temperature gradient. If in addition a magnetic field gradient parallel to the temperature gradient is applied a destabilizing magnetic force will appear in the fluid. This force can drive a convective flow that is purely controlled by the strength and direction of the applied magnetic field (Odenbach, 1995a).

His approach, based on a modified Chong description (Chong et al, 1971), leads to a good approximation for the viscosity, espe~ cially for high values of f . , 1998) overestimates the viscosity for low concentration but for extremely high volume concentration of the suspended particles a good description of the dependence of viscosity on volume concentration is found as shown in Fig. , 1998). From the last equation and from the data shown in Fig. 12 it becomes obvious, that extremely high volume concentration of magnetic particles leads first of all to a strong increase of zero field viscosity.

40) where f denotes the rotation frequency of the inner cylinder, Ri its radius, w the gap width between the cylinders and n the viscosity of the fluid contained in the gap. If the Reynolds number exceeds a certain critical value, the transition between the two states of flow appears. This critical value can be calculated from the geometry of the cylinder arrangement (DiPrima and Swinney, 1981). Since the actual Reynolds number depends on frequency and the fluid’s viscosity only, while the critical value is constant as long as the geometry of the system is fixed, the transition between the flow states may be used as a measure of the actual viscosity of the fluid under investigation.

### Amateur telescope making by Ingalis A.G. (ed.)

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